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Cissus quadrangularis showed a marked influence in the rate of fracture - healing by enhancing the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal STEM CELLS into ALP +ve osteoblast and increased extracellular matrix calcification. ( Stimulates Osteoblastogenesis) Cissus quadrangularis influences the rate of fracture healing by influencing early regeneration of all connective tissues involved in the healing & quicker mineralization of callus.

Cissus quadrangularis influencing early regeneration of all connective tissues of mesenchyma origin, namely the fibroblasts, the chondroblasts and osteoblasts involved in the healing and quicker mineralization of the callus. It has greater impact on osteoblastic proliferation than other cellular responses.

Cissus quadrangularis causes less amount of tissue reaction in the fractured region leading to optimum decalcification in the early stage with minimum of callus formation. Hence deposition of calcium is just enough to join the two broken segments of bone so that its remodeling takes much faster. This early completion of calcification process and earlier remodeling phenomenon leads to early recovery of Cissus treated animals. Cissus is also shown to cause early gain in the tensile strength of fractured bones of about 90 per cent of its normal strength at the end of 6 weeks. Cissus quadrangularis builds up the chemical composition of the fractured bone namely its mucopolysaccharides, collagen, calcium, phosphorus and others as well as its functional efficiency. Mucopolysaccharides plays an important role in the healing by supplying raw materials for repairs. Therefore it seems that in the early period of bone fracture healing, the greater the accumulation of these materials, more rapid will be the rate of healing. Rapid the utilization of these raw materials, earlier will be completion of healing process. Cissus quadrangualris not only causes the greater accumulation of mucopolysaccharides but also an earlier disappearance of mucopolysaccharides from the fractured area, associated with the earlier calcification and firmer callus formation.

In clinical trials Cissus quadrangularis as per radiological and clinical observations has been found to cause considerable reduction in the healing time of fractures by 55-33 percent. In few of the treated cases, although radiologically only, an early callus formation was observed but clinically the symptoms of fracture such as pain, tenderness, and swelling were significantly absent.

Clinical study on 16 patients on various types of fractures on external application of paste of Cissus Quadrangularis Linn - in 6 cases 40% reduction in the healing time, in 8 cases 53% reduction in the healing time and poor in 1 case with 7% reduction in healing time. Clinically in about 80% of the cases, excellent results were observed and in the remaining 14% of the cases the results were good. Only in one case there was no demonstrable effect. It was hypothesized that CQL helps in the earlier formation of collagen fibers leading to earlier calcification and callus formation.

Human trials conducted at Nagpur Medical college shows that the average fracture healing of those patient which is known to be normally 16 to 20 weeks ,reduced to 12-14 weeks. Confirmed radiographically.

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